Background: A great amount of investigations have provided evidence that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes increase the risk and severity of periodontitis; several alterations in the diabetic periodontium are likely to be involved. Conversely, periodontitis has been shown to have an impact on diabetes, although less evidence is available on the underlying mechanisms. The association between periodontitis and diabetes has been discussed in several reviews over the past years; however, none has focused on the use and contribution of rodent models.
Methods: This review describes the most commonly used rodent models of diabetes, periodontitis, and the association between the two diseases. Further, we summarize the influence of diabetes in the periodontium as well as the effect of periodontitis on diabetes status with special focus on evidence from experimental studies.
Results: Rodent studies have confirmed human findings and further increased our knowledge on the alterations in the diabetic periodontium. On the other hand, few rodent investigations have explored the consequences of periodontitis for diabetes. Their results clearly indicate that periodontitis can become a health hazard not only for diabetes but also for prediabetes; the exact mechanisms are still to be unraveled.
Conclusions: Findings from rodent studies have been useful in increasing our understanding of periodontitis, diabetes, and their association and hold great promise for future investigations given the wide variety of possibilities for testing biologic hypotheses.
Source: Abstract Journal of Periodontology.July 2007, Vol. 78, No. 7, Pages 1264-1275 , DOI. http://www.joponline.org/loi/jop